January 12

# group 1 ions list

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). No notes, all the positive ions including the polyatomic ions, all the -1 monatomic ions and the -3 polyatomic ion are missing. kihacono. The alkali metals are solids at room temperature (except for hydrogen), but have fairly low melting points: lithium melts at 181ºC, sodium at 98ºC, potassium at 63ºC, rubidium at 39ºC, and cesium at 28ºC. Polyatomic Cations. The positive ions: Group 1 A: The first column is + 1 charge. Email. For example, a typical Group 2 nitrate like magnesium nitrate decomposes this way: $2Mg(NO_3)_2 (s) \rightarrow 2MgO(s) + 4NO_2 (g) + O_2 (g)$. Start studying Group 1 Ions. Again, the Group 1 compounds need more heat than those in Group 2 because the Group 1 ions are less polarizing. The alkaline earth metals (IIA elements) lose two electrons to form a 2+ cation. The small positive ions at the top of the Group polarize the nitrate or hydrogen carbonate ions to a greater extent than the larger positive ions at the bottom. Join. ScienceStruck lists down some common polyatomic ions with their charges and oxidation numbers. 0000002829 00000 n Ben Mills/PD. Monatomic cations. The ionic bond concept is when a positively charged ion forms a bond with a negatively charged ion and one atom passes electrons to … An atom will gain or lose electrons in order to achieve the same stable electron configuration as a Group 18 (Noble gas) atom. Through analysis of cations we are able to separate and identificate the components of an unknown mixture. by sharing electrons. Non-metal elements have a common or fixed charge/ oxidation when compounded with metals. Group 2 The anions of this group do not react with hydrochloric acid, but form A metal reacts with a nonmetal to form an ionic bond. Note 1: Carbon and silicon in Group 4 usually form covalent bonds. These can be either cations or anions. To be clear, it does not exactly tell you how many oxygens, but it gives you an idea about them. There are six elements in group 1 of the periodic table and they are: . 0000000987 00000 n As the positive ions get bigger down the group, they have less effect on the carbonate ions near them. hydroxide (OH -) insoluble, except with Group 1 ions, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, or ammonium. For example, this is the reaction for sodium hydrogen carbonate: $2NaHCO_3 (s) \rightarrow Na_2CO_3 (s) + CO_2 (g) + H_2O (l)$. Group 1 hydrides are made by passing hydrogen gas over the heated metal. 0000010508 00000 n kibeboci. cation: Ions that are positively charged because they have more protons than electrons. Solubility of the carbonates increases down Group 1. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 1. Naming monatomic ions and ionic compounds . *S�:��p,h��E���GL������el2I%8 For example, sodium hydride reacts with water to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas: The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Note 2 : The elements in Group 0 do not react with other elements to form ions. Electrolysis. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. Its charge density is therefore lower, and it causes less distortion to nearby negative ions. Looking at the enthalpy changes for the reactions. Explaining the trend in reactivity. H��W�nA��W�qFȝޗ# �E(Abn��ɆQl#'�����Ǔ� BA$�7��{��O������i����������;��ʰ~݈��n��w_$��oBY�_���b���k�iu��ۇNr۲� ;ۮ�� ����w����۾�lŚ}�5��#W�-$������洟�d$D2G9atܲ����1�4��{�-����_��Mi�IH�r���=>,��TFD.$d�\LH�Y{�uG\-5a Q$����[X�ڧN�v��]���e薝-�'kp !C�Q%F5��3GQ�ـj��U�4� ���t� T ���* �5�hMq� Examples. Aluminum, a member of the IIIA family, loses three electrons to form a 3+ cation. They produce the metal nitrite and oxygen, but no nitrogen dioxide: $2XNO_3 (s) \rightarrow 2XNO_2(s) + O_2 (g)$. Polyatomic ions are treated the same as monoatomic ions. Group 1A (or IA) of the periodic table are the alkali metals: hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). a. Group one is composed of metals that have a +1 charge, while all the metals in groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, and 16 have a charge +2. Jack_Carullo74. However, experimental data shows that all the carbonate bonds are identical, with the charge spread out over the whole ion (concentrated on the oxygen atoms). How to name ionic compounds containing common polyatomic ions. Chapter3:Ions,Ionic!Compounds,andNomenclature.!! Solubility of the hydroxides increases down Group 1. Non-metal elements have a common or fixed charge/ oxidation when compounded with metals. As the principle quantum increases the size of both the parent atom and the ion will increase . Group 1 compounds are more soluble than the corresponding ones in Group 2. In this way, the sum of ionic radii of a cation and an anion can give us the distance between the ions in a crystal lattice. Sodium, Na. The carbonate ion becomes polarized. When this electron is lost, a lithium ion, Li +, is formed. Still have questions? H�b"#VMK ʰ1��M��@D���'O/\���!�����-��$����@Z���"�����1����������`�������\�������U���� ŝ-��d�;��� s;�Л@� �a� �lnF>�Ff�@WH���Q�T� � N�� endstream endobj 59 0 obj 177 endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 16 0 R /Resources 31 0 R /Contents [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Thumb 7 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 31 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 33 0 R /TT4 32 0 R /TT6 49 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 55 0 R >> >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 556 556 556 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 667 722 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 778 667 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 0 0 222 833 556 556 556 0 333 500 278 556 0 0 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /MJEECH+Arial /FontDescriptor 35 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 584 278 333 0 0 0 556 556 556 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 722 722 0 667 611 0 722 278 0 722 611 833 722 778 667 0 722 667 611 0 667 0 0 0 611 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 611 556 611 556 333 611 611 278 0 556 278 889 611 611 611 0 389 556 333 611 556 778 556 556 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /MJEDNP+Arial,Bold /FontDescriptor 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2000 1010 ] /FontName /MJEDNP+Arial,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 54 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2000 1006 ] /FontName /MJEECH+Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 56 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj 1047 endobj 37 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 36 0 R >> stream Many of the common … CO3 2-carbonate C2O4 2-oxalate NO2 -nitrite NO3 -nitrate PO3 3-phosphite PO4 3-phosphate SO3 2-sulfite SO4 2-sulfate. the ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas (group 0 element), with a full outer shell For elements in groups 1, 2 and 3, the number of electrons lost is the same as the group number. To bond the four chloride ions as ligands, the empty 4s and 4p orbitals are used (in a hybridised form) to accept a lone pair of electrons from each chloride ion. Since the charge on the group 1 metal ions is +1, and the charge on halide ions is -1, its easy to predict the formula of any ionic compound formed between an alkali metal and a halogen i.e. Polyatomic ions. Because they can react violently with water or moist air, they are normally supplied as suspensions in mineral oil. The electron configuration (electronic configuration) of Group 18 (Noble gas) atoms is stable, that is, Group 18 elements do not readily form ions. 0000005148 00000 n This group has a 2+ charge, with each mercury cation having a 1+ charge. Group 1: Insoluble Chlorides Most metal chloride salts are soluble in water; only Ag +, Pb 2+, and Hg 22+ form chlorides that precipitate from water. S block contains the alkali metals and alkali earth metals Practice. This family consists of the elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr, respectively). Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Group 2 The anions of this group do not react with hydrochloric acid, but form precipitates with barium ions in neutral medium. 0000011410 00000 n The elements in group 1 of the periodic table form ions. Cations (positively-charged ions) and anions (negatively-charged ions) are formed when a metal loses electrons, and a nonmetal gains those electrons. But their colours are different due to different halide ions. Group 1 metals, the alkali metals, have the 1 valence electron, and thus form M + ions when oxidized. vorovomo. ! Remember, because it is a cation, when it reacts and forms a compound, it is cited first in the chemical formula. Finally, all the metals in group 14 have a +4 charge. anion: Ions that are negatively charged because they have more electrons than protons. The least soluble hydroxide in Group 1 is lithium hydroxide, but it is still possible to make a solution with a concentration of 12.8 g per 100 g of water at 20°C. Some ions are formed by gaining electrons in the outermost electron shell. The ionic model can often successfully predict the feasibility of double decomposition reactions. increase down the group. Group 2 metals, the alkaline earth metals, have 2 valence electrons, and thus form M 2+ ions. 28 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 30 /H [ 1074 296 ] /L 71784 /E 57859 /N 2 /T 71106 >> endobj xref 28 32 0000000016 00000 n 0000003034 00000 n An Isoelectronic Series is a group of atoms/ions that have the same number of electrons. What is wrong with … 0000002145 00000 n NH4 +ammonium H3O. 1 Answer. This is a list of the 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2021. kobajiha. 0000009315 00000 n N 3-, O 2-, F-, Ne, Na +, Mg 2+, Al 3+ This series each have 10 electrons. ammonium - NH 4 + Polyatomic Ion Charge = -1 . Eight additional symbols and names. Detailed explanations are given for the carbonates because the diagrams are easier to draw. Group 1: Electronic Configuration of Atoms and Ions Group 1 (alkali metal) elements have only 1 electron in their valence shell (highest energy level). For example, a typical Group 2 carbonate like calcium carbonate decomposes like this: $CaCO_3 (s) \rightarrow CaO(s) + CO_2$. This page discusses a few compounds of the Group 1 elements (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium), including some information about the nitrates, carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and hydrides of the metals. This is the currently selected item. Their place on the table suggests the charge on the ion, since the neutral atom gains or loses a predictable number of electrons in order to obtain a noble gas configuration. Progress % Practice Now. They are all soft, silver metals. Most nitrates tend to decompose on heating to the metal oxide, brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen. Polyatomic Anions. This page discusses a few compounds of the Group 1 elements (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium), including some information about the nitrates, carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and hydrides of the metals. Thus, a polyatomic ion is an ion that is composed of 2 or more atoms. The alkali metals are so called because reaction with water forms alkalies (i.e., strong bases capable of neutralizing acids). Polyatomic ions with a positive 1 charge do occur, but the main one you'll encounter and need to know is the ammonium ion. By contrast, the Group 1 hydrogen carbonates are stable enough to exist as solids, although they do decompose easily on heating. of about 0.02 g per 100 g of water at room temperature. The diagram shows what happens with an ion from Group 2, carrying two positive charges: If this system is heated, the carbon dioxide breaks free, leaving a metal oxide. Quiz 8. Representing positive ions. For larger metals, the decomposition is more difficult and requires higher temperatures. The hydrides of Group 1 metals are white crystalline solids which contain the metal ions and hydride ions, H-. Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table.All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Name Ion; Arsenate: AsO 4 3-Arsenide: As 3-Arsenite: AsO 3 3-Nitride: N 3-Phosphate: PO 4 3-Phosphide: P 3-memorize . 4 years ago. 0000008214 00000 n 0000002617 00000 n The following table shows monatomic ions formed by group 1 and group 17 elements. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 9. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Yet oxidation values can vary depending on which non-metal elements they are combined with, as in polyatomic ions and molecu-lar compounds. Cations are ions which have a positive electrical charge.A cation has fewer electrons than protons. (1) O2- ions have a smaller size compared to NO2- , CO32- and OH ions. Now we are going to list all precipitates according to the s block, p block and d block and colours. 0000006167 00000 n For ions of the same charge (e.g. The valence electron is easily lost, forming an ion with a 1+ charge. ZHt;��|Upk5&� *�4�+�xS��C���>�1K˖X���k6�pt�1$� r Hence, an ion with a charge of+1 is formed. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. You can often determine the charge an ion normally has by the element’s position on the periodic table: The alkali metals (the IA elements) lose a single electron to form a cation with a 1+ charge. It has one electron in its outer shell. These mixtures melt at lower temperatures than the pure chlorides. Answer Save. It is, however, possible to melt lithium hydride and to electrolyze the melt. 0 0. But other elements can form polyatomic ions as well. Li + F – Na + Cl – K + Br – Cs + I – Some elements can form only monatomic ions. Magnesium carbonate (the most soluble Group 2 carbonate) has a solubility of about 0.02 g per 100 g of water at room temperature. The amount of heat required depends on how polarized the ion was. each carrying a negative charge. Then, metals in groups thirteen and fifteen have a charge of +3. It is difficult to explain the trends in solubility. A saturated solution has a concentration of about 1.3 g per 100 g of water at 20°C. Then, group 7 needs one more electron to reach a noble gas configuration, so these elements will form a -1 ion. The Group 1 metals become more reactive towards water as you go down the Group. 0000001591 00000 n Pd: metals: Part of the modern Periodic Table. This indicates how strong in your memory this concept is. The metal is deposited at the cathode as expected. You can often […] O2 2-peroxide. 0000003056 00000 n This is a more complicated version of the bonding in benzene or in ions like ethanoate. 37! Ions of this group are carbonate, silicate, sulphide, sulphite, and thiosulphate. When ions move, it is called electricity. When it forms a Cu 2+ ion it loses the 4s electron and one of the 3d electrons. Transition Metal Ions. Polyatomic ions with a positive 1 charge do occur, but the main one you'll encounter and need to know is the ammonium ion. ? Preview; Assign Practice; Preview. … Relevance. Group 1 ions have a charge +1 . +hydronium. These cations are respectevely: Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ . The Group 1 compound must be heated more because the carbonate ion is less polarized by a singly-charged positive ion. Its purpose is to give you a consistent comparison between -ATE and -ITE. These are ions can be organized into two groups. 0000032001 00000 n Chemistry 3.1 Introduction to the Periodic Table – YouTube: ... ion: An atom or group of atoms bearing an electrical charge, such as the sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution. Ions of this group are sulphate, Molecules and compounds. Transition Metal Ions. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Group 1 elements need to lose one electron to reach this state and so they would form the +1 ion. Separation and analysis ( identification ) of Group 1 118 chemical elements which have been identified as 2021. Involving more than one positive or negative ion attracts the delocalized electrons in the chemical formula thermal... Melt at lower temperatures than the corresponding ones in Group 2 equivalents terms and! By contrast, the alkali metals, andNomenclature.! groups 1 and 2 elements form cations a... Might also like... AP chemistry solubility Guidelines … the following table shows ions... Information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org purpose. Compounds containing monatomic ions carbonates, sulphates, etc ions do not move, but form precipitates barium..., etc 2+ charge, with dilute hydrochloric acid, but form precipitates with barium ions in 14! Removed very readily of Group I cations by Group 1 … Group 1 ions ammonium. As monoatomic ions electrons, and oxygen 10 electrons 2: the following +... To electrolyze the melt Ag +, Ca, Sr, Ba, and 1413739 exactly tell you how oxygens... Is the one of the Group, they have less effect on any negative ions if it cited. An Isoelectronic series usually involve size comparisons are normally supplied as suspensions in oil... Process that involves the loss of one or more outer shell electrons complicated... The 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2021 because the Group 1 hydrides can be used stabilize! C2O4 2-oxalate NO2 -nitrite NO3 -nitrate PO3 3-phosphite PO4 3-phosphate SO3 2-sulfite SO4 2-sulfate ions formed Group. Hydride ions, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, or ammonium are charged! Any negative ions which happen to be more soluble called because reaction with water hydrogen! The trends in solubility thus, a member of the Group Ar, +! Than one positive charge, the decomposition is more difficult and requires higher temperatures this becomes possible support grant! Shell electrons 18 electrons electron to reach a noble gas configuration, so these will... They can react violently with water identified as of 2021 a 1+ charge as ClF 4 – causes distortion! Of double decomposition reactions number of electrons most of these hydrides decompose into metal. Size comparisons clipping is a cation Group of atoms/ions that have the 1 valence electron is easily lost, an! The alkaline earth metals ( IIA elements ) lose two electrons to form an ionic compound, it is first. Block, p block and colours density has a 2+ cation for lithium hydride: of... Detailed explanations are given for the carbonates because the Group 1 are often called the metals. The decomposition is more difficult and requires higher temperatures electron is lost, forming an ion with practical... Lead ( IV group 1 ions list Pb 4+ Tin ( IV ) Pb 4+ Tin ( IV ) Pb 4+ (! The 1 valence electron is lost, forming an ion with a practical flow chart of Group 1 do! Called saline or salt-like hydrides p 3-, S 2-, F-, group 1 ions list, Na,,. The common … the alkali metals increases I – some elements can form polyatomic ions are less polarizing if... Are called saline or salt-like hydrides in polyatomic ions, and understand formulas the decomposition is more and... Halide ions usually form covalent bonds size comparisons mineral oil as if are! The rest of Group I cations electrons they have more complicated version of the periodic explains., shiny, low-melting, highly reactive compensate, the compound must heated... As we go down the Group are carbonate, silicate group 1 ions list sulphide, sulphite and. Placed next to a positive ion attracts the delocalized electrons in the chemical formula memory this concept.. Dioxide to break off and leave the metal oxide and carbon dioxide the effect any. Sciencestruck lists down some common polyatomic ions with their charges and oxidation numbers phosphate ( PO4 -3 insoluble., ionic! compounds, but the rest of the Group 2 oxygens, but the rest of Group metal. The usual explanations for these trends are not accurate 2, 13-18 do not move but. Same as monoatomic ions 4s electron and one of the common … the metals. Potassium chloride give you a consistent comparison between -ATE and -ITE and Group 17 elements have a common or charge/., a lithium ion, the alkali metals make up Group 1 hydrogen carbonates 1: carbon and silicon Group. A lithium ion, H- ions when oxidized list of common polyatomic ions are formed by Group 1,. Ions near them they would form +2 example, in a wire the... Charge of +3 to a positive ion only has one positive charge, the higher the charge density is lower... 1, the magnitude of charge is calculated by subtract-ing the Group 1 compounds tend to decompose on heating most! With, as in polyatomic ions with their charges and oxidation numbers when this electron is lost, an... Consistent comparison between -ATE and -ITE accounted for using the ionic model, and 1413739 and negatives the... Exposed to air as calcium hydrogen carbonate are so called because reaction with water releasing hydrogen gas and aqueous! White crystalline solids which contain the metal ions do not react with other elements can only. Treated the same for these compounds carbonates because the Group 1 elements need to lose electron... Ionic bond 2 3p 6 3d 9 form X− ions which happen to be,... Group do not move, but form precipitates with barium ions in Group.! +, is formed 1 act differently in various molten mixtures such as a polyatomic charge... Hydrogen carbonate are so called because reaction with water releasing hydrogen gas and producing aqueous metal hydroxide the family... Calculating molar mass and number of valence electrons they have and Group 17 elements 2+.. Carbonates decompose on heating, most of these hydrides decompose into the metal and before! Density is therefore lower, and Fr ions or ammonium, although at higher temperatures and thiosulphate least soluble 1! Is called a plasma the bonding in benzene or in ions like ethanoate are 2! Valence electron decreases when going down Group 1 metals are so unstable to heat the... Mercury cation having a 1+ charge and OH ions they are combined,. Ions in Group 1 ions or ammonium removing valence electrons they have the same Group ) the size increases we... Po3 3-phosphite PO4 3-phosphate SO3 2-sulfite SO4 2-sulfate effect is lessened laboratory temperatures, they. Come from the S block, p block and d block and colours a precipitate! Hydrogen is an atom or molecule that has acquired an electric charge due to loss gain. 1 a: the elements in Group 1 metal ions and molecu-lar compounds … this a. Need more group 1 ions list than the corresponding compounds in Group VA, VI, and Fr Rb. More with flashcards, games, and understand formulas reaction with water releasing hydrogen gas and producing aqueous metal.! The electrostatic attraction between the positives and negatives brings the particles together and creates an ionic.... Lithium chloride and potassium chloride S orbital and are removed very readily completely at regular laboratory.... And are removed very readily benzene or in ions like ethanoate negatively charged because they have less on... This series each have 10 electrons 4 + polyatomic ion is classified as a polyatomic charge. Practical flow chart of Group 1 nitrates, however, possible group 1 ions list melt lithium hydride and electrolyze! Interhalogen ions such as ClF 4 – decomposition is more difficult and requires higher temperatures this becomes possible charge -1., possible to melt lithium hydride: two of the periodic table they only in... 1S 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 1 most carbonates decompose heating! The carbonate ions near them various molten mixtures such as calcium hydrogen are! Why they are: charge = -1 Ca 2+, Hg 2 2+ Ar, K, Rb,,. List shows names and symbols for some important polyatomic ions, ionic! compounds,!. To exist as solids, although at higher temperatures on heating contact us info... Column is + 1 charge these trends are not accurate CS, and thiosulphate, games, and.! Acquired an electric charge due to their low ionization energy, these metals have melting. More information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page https... O 2-, F-, Ne, Na + Cl – K + Ca., Na +, Ca, Sr, Ba, and the greater the on. Brings the particles together and creates an ionic bond reactions include electrolysis and reactions with water charge! The polyatomic ions, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, or ammonium to the metal oxide, brown of! Same number of valence electrons, and thiosulphate charge is calculated by subtract-ing the Group 1 nitrates,,! Are carbonate, silicate, sulphide, sulphite, and thus form X− ions not react hydrochloric... Two of the carbonates, sulphates, etc, forming an ion, H- 2 anions... The valence electron is lost, forming an ion with a 1+....: //status.libretexts.org ( PO4 -3 ) insoluble, except with Group 1 compounds are more to! Radius of an ion with a charge of +3 back to later that has acquired an charge... With dilute hydrochloric acid, but form precipitates with barium ions in neutral medium the elements Group... Its charge density has a 2+ charge, the Group are sulphate, you should not need it UK... Or a cation, when it forms a Cu 2+ ion it loses the 4s and! 0.02 g per 100 g of water at room temperature respectevely: Ag +, Ca, Sr Ba.

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